ਸਤਿਗੁਰਬਚਨਕਮਾਵਣੇਸਚਾਏਹੁਵੀਚਾਰੁ॥
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Vichaar on Pehre Shabads in Siri Raag
								

Siri Guru Nanak Dev jee Maharaj's great composition - Pehre - appear in Raag Siriraag, starting on Ang 74 of Siri Guru Granth Sahib jee. In olden days, time was divided into different units. The 24 hour day was divided into 8 Pehars which works out to one Pehar being equal to 3 hours.

In this great Baani - Pehre - Siri Guru jee has divided the human life into 4 Pehars or segments. Guru Sahib very affectionately calls the Jeev - Vanjara Mitr - which means Merchant Friend. Calling the Jeev a Merchant has many profound implications. It proves that the Jeev (creature) has come to this world as per a plan by Vaheguru and not by chance, without any plan, as supporters of theory of evolution claim. Secondly, it proves that the Jeev has come here to do business because this is what merchants do. They buy and sell goods and then take home profits. Jeev has come here to do the spiritual business of collecting spiritual goods - Naam and Gurbani.

There are 4 Shabads in this Baani Pehre. The first two Shabads are of Siri Guru Nanak Dev jee, the third one is authored by Siri Guru Raamdaas jee and the fourth one is composed by Siri Guru Arjun Dev jee Maharaj. The first and third Shabad contain 4 stanzas each while the second and fourth Shabads have 5 stanzas.

Basically, each of the stanza in each Shabad, explains one of the Pehars or segment of life. In the Shabads that have 5 stanzas, the extra stanza has been composed to further explain one of the Pehars.

Each of the Shabads of Pehre, depending on the kind of Jeev, has been divided into segments of life differently. If one of the Shabad explained one of the segments of life in more detail and explained other segments a bit tersely, then the subsequent Shabads have taken up explaining the other segments in more detail.

First we will begin with the first Shabad of Siri Guru Nanak Dev jee Maharaj:


FIRST SHABAD OF PEHRE

ੴ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ ਸਿਰੀਰਾਗੁ ਮਹਲਾ ੧ ਪਹਰੇ ਘਰੁ ੧ ॥ ਪਹਿਲੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਹੁਕਮਿ ਪਇਆ ਗਰਭਾਸਿ ॥   ਉਰਧ ਤਪੁ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਕਰੇ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਖਸਮ ਸੇਤੀ ਅਰਦਾਸਿ ॥   ਖਸਮ ਸੇਤੀ ਅਰਦਾਸਿ ਵਖਾਣੈ ਉਰਧ ਧਿਆਨਿ ਲਿਵ ਲਾਗਾ ॥   ਨਾਮਰਜਾਦੁ ਆਇਆ ਕਲਿ ਭੀਤਰਿ ਬਾਹੁੜਿ ਜਾਸੀ ਨਾਗਾ ॥   ਜੈਸੀ ਕਲਮ ਵੁੜੀ ਹੈ ਮਸਤਕਿ ਤੈਸੀ ਜੀਅੜੇ ਪਾਸਿ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਪਹਿਲੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਹੁਕਮਿ ਪਇਆ ਗਰਭਾਸਿ ॥੧॥  

ਦੂਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਵਿਸਰਿ ਗਇਆ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥   ਹਥੋ ਹਥਿ ਨਚਾਈਐ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਜਿਉ ਜਸੁਦਾ ਘਰਿ ਕਾਨੁ ॥   ਹਥੋ ਹਥਿ ਨਚਾਈਐ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਮਾਤ ਕਹੈ ਸੁਤੁ ਮੇਰਾ ॥   ਚੇਤਿ ਅਚੇਤ ਮੂੜ ਮਨ ਮੇਰੇ ਅੰਤਿ ਨਹੀ ਕਛੁ ਤੇਰਾ ॥   ਜਿਨਿ ਰਚਿ ਰਚਿਆ ਤਿਸਹਿ ਨ ਜਾਣੈ ਮਨ ਭੀਤਰਿ ਧਰਿ ਗਿਆਨੁ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਦੂਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਵਿਸਰਿ ਗਇਆ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥੨॥  

ਤੀਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਧਨ ਜੋਬਨ ਸਿਉ ਚਿਤੁ ॥   ਹਰਿ ਕਾ ਨਾਮੁ ਨ ਚੇਤਹੀ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਬਧਾ ਛੁਟਹਿ ਜਿਤੁ ॥   ਹਰਿ ਕਾ ਨਾਮੁ ਨ ਚੇਤੈ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਬਿਕਲੁ ਭਇਆ ਸੰਗਿ ਮਾਇਆ ॥   ਧਨ ਸਿਉ ਰਤਾ ਜੋਬਨਿ ਮਤਾ ਅਹਿਲਾ ਜਨਮੁ ਗਵਾਇਆ ॥   ਧਰਮ ਸੇਤੀ ਵਾਪਾਰੁ ਨ ਕੀਤੋ ਕਰਮੁ ਨ ਕੀਤੋ ਮਿਤੁ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਤੀਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਧਨ ਜੋਬਨ ਸਿਉ ਚਿਤੁ ॥੩॥  

ਚਉਥੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਲਾਵੀ ਆਇਆ ਖੇਤੁ ॥   ਜਾ ਜਮਿ ਪਕੜਿ ਚਲਾਇਆ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਕਿਸੈ ਨ ਮਿਲਿਆ ਭੇਤੁ ॥   ਭੇਤੁ ਚੇਤੁ ਹਰਿ ਕਿਸੈ ਨ ਮਿਲਿਓ ਜਾ ਜਮਿ ਪਕੜਿ ਚਲਾਇਆ ॥   ਝੂਠਾ ਰੁਦਨੁ ਹੋਆ ਦਆਲੈ ਖਿਨ ਮਹਿ ਭਇਆ ਪਰਾਇਆ ॥   ਸਾਈ ਵਸਤੁ ਪਰਾਪਤਿ ਹੋਈ ਜਿਸੁ ਸਿਉ ਲਾਇਆ ਹੇਤੁ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਚਉਥੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਲਾਵੀ ਲੁਣਿਆ ਖੇਤੁ ॥੪॥੧॥  

LOSE TRANSLATION

In this Shabad, Guru Sahib explains that as per Hukam, the Vanjaara Mitr - Jeev - gets placed in the womb. There in the womb he is hung upside down and in this distressed state make pleas for mercy. Since this place is very tight, and it is very hot there, the Jeev finds it impossible to survive. Vaheguru hears the pleas of the Jeev and gives him support of Naam. There in this agonizing situation, the Jeev survives due to Dhyaan (concentration) on Naam. After his time is up, the Jeev comes out unceremoniously i.e. naked and such is the Hukam that the Jeev from this world will leave naked as well. Then Guru Sahib explains that as is the Hukam of Vaheguru, the Jeev comes with such Kismet. (1)

In the second stanza Guru Sahib explains how the Jeev under the influence of Maya, totally loses Dhyaan on Naam. The parents of the Jeev play with the child and love him as Jashodhra used to love Siri Krishna (Yashodra's love for Siri Krishna is legendary). Mother carries the baby around and says out loud that "this is my son". Guru Sahib comments, "O unconscious Mind, Remember Him, in the end, nothing belongs to you. That Vaheguru who created you, you don't remember him! get some wisdom in your mind." This way Guru Sahib concludes in the 2nd stanza saying that the Jeev has lost Dhyaan on Vaheguru.(2)

In the third stanza, Guru Sahib talks about the period from youth to about mid-life. In this stage, the Jeev is only concerned about his youth and money. The Jeev does not remember Naam that can save him from bonds. The Jeev does not remember Naam and becomes helpless by associating with Maya. The Jeev is intoxicated by youth and engaged in collecting wealth, and this way loses the value of human life by wasting it. The Jeev does not do the business of good Dharma and does not make Karma (good Karma) his friend and this way wastes his life collecting wealth and staying intoxicated in youth. (3)

In the fourth stanza, Guru Sahib skips the life between youth and old age, and goes straight to the last moments of the Jeev. Finally the moment of death arrives. The Jammdoots come to collect the Jeev in the same way as the farmer comes to harvest the crops. When the Jamm gets hold of the Jeev, no one realizes what happened to the Jeev. No one finds out where the Jeev gets taken by the Jamm. False crying by relatives occurs near the Jeev's dead body and in a second the Jeev becomes stranger to all. The Jeev gets that object in the next world, that he had wished for, all his life i.e. gets punished for his actions and sins. Guru Sahib says that in the 4th Pehar, the Jamm take away the Jeev as the farmer harvests his fields. (4)

ANALYSIS: In this Shabad we notice that Guru Sahib has explained the time in the womb and childhood in great detail and two stanzas are dedicated to this but the life from later childhood to mid-life gets covered only in one stanze. The old-age does not get explained at all. Then one whole stanza has been written to explain the time of death and aftermath. This Shabad basically explains the life of such person who is not a devotee of Vaheguru and leads a sinful life under the influence of Maya. In the end it has been shown that such person gets taken away by the Jammdoots (messengers of death).

As we do Vichaar on the remaining 3 Shabads, we will notice differences in how the life of the Jeev has been divided. That Vichaar to follow in the coming days. Finally we will study the differences in the 4 Pehars as explained in each of the 4 Shabads and try to understand it.

The second Shabad of Pehre too is written by Siri Guru Nanak Dev jee and the human life has been divided into 4 Pehars, differently than the first Shabad. The stages of human life that were not fully explained in the first Shabad have now been explained in this Shabad. Below is the Shabad and it's loose translation and after that we will do Vichaar of this Shabad.

SECOND SHABAD - PEHRE

ਸਿਰੀਰਾਗੁ ਮਹਲਾ ੧ ॥   ਪਹਿਲੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਬਾਲਕ ਬੁਧਿ ਅਚੇਤੁ ॥   ਖੀਰੁ ਪੀਐ ਖੇਲਾਈਐ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਮਾਤ ਪਿਤਾ ਸੁਤ ਹੇਤੁ ॥   ਮਾਤ ਪਿਤਾ ਸੁਤ ਨੇਹੁ ਘਨੇਰਾ ਮਾਇਆ ਮੋਹੁ ਸਬਾਈ ॥   ਸੰਜੋਗੀ ਆਇਆ ਕਿਰਤੁ ਕਮਾਇਆ ਕਰਣੀ ਕਾਰ ਕਰਾਈ ॥   ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮ ਬਿਨੁ ਮੁਕਤਿ ਨ ਹੋਈ ਬੂਡੀ ਦੂਜੈ ਹੇਤਿ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਪਹਿਲੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਛੂਟਹਿਗਾ ਹਰਿ ਚੇਤਿ ॥੧॥  

ਦੂਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਭਰਿ ਜੋਬਨਿ ਮੈ ਮਤਿ ॥   ਅਹਿਨਿਸਿ ਕਾਮਿ ਵਿਆਪਿਆ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਅੰਧੁਲੇ ਨਾਮੁ ਨ ਚਿਤਿ ॥   ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮੁ ਘਟ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਨਾਹੀ ਹੋਰਿ ਜਾਣੈ ਰਸ ਕਸ ਮੀਠੇ ॥   ਗਿਆਨੁ ਧਿਆਨੁ ਗੁਣ ਸੰਜਮੁ ਨਾਹੀ ਜਨਮਿ ਮਰਹੁਗੇ ਝੂਠੇ ॥   ਤੀਰਥ ਵਰਤ ਸੁਚਿ ਸੰਜਮੁ ਨਾਹੀ ਕਰਮੁ ਧਰਮੁ ਨਹੀ ਪੂਜਾ ॥   ਨਾਨਕ ਭਾਇ ਭਗਤਿ ਨਿਸਤਾਰਾ ਦੁਬਿਧਾ ਵਿਆਪੈ ਦੂਜਾ ॥੨॥  

ਤੀਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਸਰਿ ਹੰਸ ਉਲਥੜੇ ਆਇ ॥   ਜੋਬਨੁ ਘਟੈ ਜਰੂਆ ਜਿਣੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਆਵ ਘਟੈ ਦਿਨੁ ਜਾਇ ॥   ਅੰਤਿ ਕਾਲਿ ਪਛੁਤਾਸੀ ਅੰਧੁਲੇ ਜਾ ਜਮਿ ਪਕੜਿ ਚਲਾਇਆ ॥   ਸਭੁ ਕਿਛੁ ਅਪੁਨਾ ਕਰਿ ਕਰਿ ਰਾਖਿਆ ਖਿਨ ਮਹਿ ਭਇਆ ਪਰਾਇਆ ॥   ਬੁਧਿ ਵਿਸਰਜੀ ਗਈ ਸਿਆਣਪ ਕਰਿ ਅਵਗਣ ਪਛੁਤਾਇ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਤੀਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਚੇਤਹੁ ਲਿਵ ਲਾਇ ॥੩॥  

ਚਉਥੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਬਿਰਧਿ ਭਇਆ ਤਨੁ ਖੀਣੁ ॥   ਅਖੀ ਅੰਧੁ ਨ ਦੀਸਈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਕੰਨੀ ਸੁਣੈ ਨ ਵੈਣ ॥   ਅਖੀ ਅੰਧੁ ਜੀਭ ਰਸੁ ਨਾਹੀ ਰਹੇ ਪਰਾਕਉ ਤਾਣਾ ॥   ਗੁਣ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਨਾਹੀ ਕਿਉ ਸੁਖੁ ਪਾਵੈ ਮਨਮੁਖ ਆਵਣ ਜਾਣਾ ॥   ਖੜੁ ਪਕੀ ਕੁੜਿ ਭਜੈ ਬਿਨਸੈ ਆਇ ਚਲੈ ਕਿਆ ਮਾਣੁ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਚਉਥੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਸਬਦੁ ਪਛਾਣੁ ॥੪॥  

ਓੜਕੁ ਆਇਆ ਤਿਨ ਸਾਹਿਆ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਜਰੁ ਜਰਵਾਣਾ ਕੰਨਿ ॥   ਇਕ ਰਤੀ ਗੁਣ ਨ ਸਮਾਣਿਆ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਅਵਗਣ ਖੜਸਨਿ ਬੰਨਿ ॥   ਗੁਣ ਸੰਜਮਿ ਜਾਵੈ ਚੋਟ ਨ ਖਾਵੈ ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਜੰਮਣੁ ਮਰਣਾ ॥   ਕਾਲੁ ਜਾਲੁ ਜਮੁ ਜੋਹਿ ਨ ਸਾਕੈ ਭਾਇ ਭਗਤਿ ਭੈ ਤਰਣਾ ॥   ਪਤਿ ਸੇਤੀ ਜਾਵੈ ਸਹਜਿ ਸਮਾਵੈ ਸਗਲੇ ਦੂਖ ਮਿਟਾਵੈ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਛੂਟੈ ਸਾਚੇ ਤੇ ਪਤਿ ਪਾਵੈ ॥੫॥੨॥  



LOOSE TRANSLATION

The first Pehar in this Shabad covers the childhood period. In the first Pehar, the Jeev has intelligence of a child and is unconscious in Maya. The parents love the child very much and feed him milk. The parents have extreme attachment with the child but no one realizes that the child and parents have met just because of Sanjog (force that brings Jeevs together to settle Karmic debts). Without Raam Naam, no one gets emancipated and everyone gets drowned in the ocean of Maya. Guru Sahib says that in the first Pehar too one can get Mukat (emancipated) if one remembers Hari Vaheguru. (1)

In the second Pehar the Jeev is intoxicated with youth; day and night he is indulged in Kaam (sexual lust). Raam Naam does not reside in the Jeev in this Pehar and he considers the worldly pleasures as sweet. The Jeev has no concentration, divine knowledge nor righteous Karma; therefore, he will take birth again and then die again (i.e. will get stuck in cycle of birth and death). The other means of getting free e.g. pilgrimages, fasting etc are of no use and one gets free by doing Prema-Bhagti but alas, the Jeev is stuck in Maya (Dooja). (2)

The third Pehar talks about mid-life. The Jeev starts losing youth and getting old; the life is coming to an end day by day. When the end time comes, the Jeev will have to regret because the Jeev has taken ownership of everything and will have to lose everything at death time. The wisdom of Jeev is covered by Maya and for sinning the Jeev will regret later on. Guru Sahib says that the Jeev should remember Vaheguru with full concentration in this Pehar. (3)

The 4th Pehar covers the old age when the Jeev becomes very weak. The body starts faltering, the eyes lose eyesight, the tongue can no longer feel taste and ears lose ability to hear. In such situation the Jeev remains totally dependent on others. How can the Jeev get Sukh (happiness) when he has no good qualities in the Jeev? The Manmukh Jeev has to come and go (take birth and die). Only through the Guru, can the Jeev realize the Shabad in this Pehar. (4)

The 4th Pehar continues in the 5th stanza. Finally that moment arrives when the messengers of death come and since the Manmukh Jeev hardly has any good deed, they tie up the Jeev to carry him across to the next world. On the other hand, Gurmukhs who go to the next world loaded with Gunn (good Gurmat qualities, good Karma), they don't have to take birth again, nor they die again. Those who stay in the fear of Vaheguru and love Him, Jammdoots can't touch them. They go with full honour and respect and all their Dukh (sorrow) is deleted. Guru Sahib says that the Jeev can get emancipated only through the true Guru and only from the True one (Vaheguru) the Jeev gets honour.(5)

ANALYSIS This Shabad basically starts with childhood and moves on to explain youth in the second stanze. In the third stanza it explains mid-life and in the fourth and fifth stanzas Guru Sahib covers the fourth Pehar of one's life which involves old age and death. The first Shabad had gone straight from youth to death time but this Shabad explains the midlife, old age and death time in greater detail however, it does not explain the time spent in womb because that time has been covered in the first Shabad.

The old age explained in this Shabad is very scary. If the Jeev does not have the support of Naam and Gurbani, it is very hard to endure suffering in old age. First of all Gurmukhs don't go through the severe old age mentioned in this Shabad but even if they have to go through it to settle their Karmic account once and for all, they have the support of Naam to endure this hardship.

Guru Sahib gives the Manmukh Jeev a chance even in this old age and says that even if the Jeev comes to the Guru and realizes the Shabad, still he can get free but such a thing occurs rarely. The Jeev who has been indulged in Maya all life, can hardly even think of coming to the true Guru.

Below is the summary of 4 Shabads of Pehre and how the life has been divided into Pehars, by each of the Shabad. The basic idea of all Shabads is same - the futility of human life without Simran and the success of human life by meditating the true Naam.




The study of Pehre is very exciting. May Guru Sahib make us true Vanjaare Mitr of Guru Sahib.

Bhul Chuk dee Maafi jee.

Kulbir Singh

 
 
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Siri Guru Nanak Dev jee Maharaj's great composition - Pehre - appear in Raag Siriraag, starting on Ang 74 of Siri Guru Granth Sahib jee. In olden days, time was divided into different units. The 24 hour day was divided into 8 Pehars which works out to one Pehar being equal to 3 hours.

In this great Baani - Pehre - Siri Guru jee has divided the human life into 4 Pehars or segments. Guru Sahib very affectionately calls the Jeev - Vanjara Mitr - which means Merchant Friend. Calling the Jeev a Merchant has many profound implications. It proves that the Jeev (creature) has come to this world as per a plan by Vaheguru and not by chance, without any plan, as supporters of theory of evolution claim. Secondly, it proves that the Jeev has come here to do business because this is what merchants do. They buy and sell goods and then take home profits. Jeev has come here to do the spiritual business of collecting spiritual goods - Naam and Gurbani.

There are 4 Shabads in this Baani Pehre. The first two Shabads are of Siri Guru Nanak Dev jee, the third one is authored by Siri Guru Raamdaas jee and the fourth one is composed by Siri Guru Arjun Dev jee Maharaj. The first and third Shabad contain 4 stanzas each while the second and fourth Shabads have 5 stanzas.

Basically, each of the stanza in each Shabad, explains one of the Pehars or segment of life. In the Shabads that have 5 stanzas, the extra stanza has been composed to further explain one of the Pehars.

Each of the Shabads of Pehre, depending on the kind of Jeev, has been divided into segments of life differently. If one of the Shabad explained one of the segments of life in more detail and explained other segments a bit tersely, then the subsequent Shabads have taken up explaining the other segments in more detail.

First we will begin with the first Shabad of Siri Guru Nanak Dev jee Maharaj:


FIRST SHABAD OF PEHRE

ੴ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ ਸਿਰੀਰਾਗੁ ਮਹਲਾ ੧ ਪਹਰੇ ਘਰੁ ੧ ॥ ਪਹਿਲੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਹੁਕਮਿ ਪਇਆ ਗਰਭਾਸਿ ॥   ਉਰਧ ਤਪੁ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਕਰੇ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਖਸਮ ਸੇਤੀ ਅਰਦਾਸਿ ॥   ਖਸਮ ਸੇਤੀ ਅਰਦਾਸਿ ਵਖਾਣੈ ਉਰਧ ਧਿਆਨਿ ਲਿਵ ਲਾਗਾ ॥   ਨਾਮਰਜਾਦੁ ਆਇਆ ਕਲਿ ਭੀਤਰਿ ਬਾਹੁੜਿ ਜਾਸੀ ਨਾਗਾ ॥   ਜੈਸੀ ਕਲਮ ਵੁੜੀ ਹੈ ਮਸਤਕਿ ਤੈਸੀ ਜੀਅੜੇ ਪਾਸਿ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਪਹਿਲੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਹੁਕਮਿ ਪਇਆ ਗਰਭਾਸਿ ॥੧॥  

ਦੂਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਵਿਸਰਿ ਗਇਆ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥   ਹਥੋ ਹਥਿ ਨਚਾਈਐ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਜਿਉ ਜਸੁਦਾ ਘਰਿ ਕਾਨੁ ॥   ਹਥੋ ਹਥਿ ਨਚਾਈਐ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਮਾਤ ਕਹੈ ਸੁਤੁ ਮੇਰਾ ॥   ਚੇਤਿ ਅਚੇਤ ਮੂੜ ਮਨ ਮੇਰੇ ਅੰਤਿ ਨਹੀ ਕਛੁ ਤੇਰਾ ॥   ਜਿਨਿ ਰਚਿ ਰਚਿਆ ਤਿਸਹਿ ਨ ਜਾਣੈ ਮਨ ਭੀਤਰਿ ਧਰਿ ਗਿਆਨੁ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਦੂਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਵਿਸਰਿ ਗਇਆ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥੨॥  

ਤੀਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਧਨ ਜੋਬਨ ਸਿਉ ਚਿਤੁ ॥   ਹਰਿ ਕਾ ਨਾਮੁ ਨ ਚੇਤਹੀ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਬਧਾ ਛੁਟਹਿ ਜਿਤੁ ॥   ਹਰਿ ਕਾ ਨਾਮੁ ਨ ਚੇਤੈ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਬਿਕਲੁ ਭਇਆ ਸੰਗਿ ਮਾਇਆ ॥   ਧਨ ਸਿਉ ਰਤਾ ਜੋਬਨਿ ਮਤਾ ਅਹਿਲਾ ਜਨਮੁ ਗਵਾਇਆ ॥   ਧਰਮ ਸੇਤੀ ਵਾਪਾਰੁ ਨ ਕੀਤੋ ਕਰਮੁ ਨ ਕੀਤੋ ਮਿਤੁ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਤੀਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਧਨ ਜੋਬਨ ਸਿਉ ਚਿਤੁ ॥੩॥  

ਚਉਥੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਲਾਵੀ ਆਇਆ ਖੇਤੁ ॥   ਜਾ ਜਮਿ ਪਕੜਿ ਚਲਾਇਆ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਕਿਸੈ ਨ ਮਿਲਿਆ ਭੇਤੁ ॥   ਭੇਤੁ ਚੇਤੁ ਹਰਿ ਕਿਸੈ ਨ ਮਿਲਿਓ ਜਾ ਜਮਿ ਪਕੜਿ ਚਲਾਇਆ ॥   ਝੂਠਾ ਰੁਦਨੁ ਹੋਆ ਦਆਲੈ ਖਿਨ ਮਹਿ ਭਇਆ ਪਰਾਇਆ ॥   ਸਾਈ ਵਸਤੁ ਪਰਾਪਤਿ ਹੋਈ ਜਿਸੁ ਸਿਉ ਲਾਇਆ ਹੇਤੁ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਚਉਥੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਲਾਵੀ ਲੁਣਿਆ ਖੇਤੁ ॥੪॥੧॥  

LOSE TRANSLATION

In this Shabad, Guru Sahib explains that as per Hukam, the Vanjaara Mitr - Jeev - gets placed in the womb. There in the womb he is hung upside down and in this distressed state make pleas for mercy. Since this place is very tight, and it is very hot there, the Jeev finds it impossible to survive. Vaheguru hears the pleas of the Jeev and gives him support of Naam. There in this agonizing situation, the Jeev survives due to Dhyaan (concentration) on Naam. After his time is up, the Jeev comes out unceremoniously i.e. naked and such is the Hukam that the Jeev from this world will leave naked as well. Then Guru Sahib explains that as is the Hukam of Vaheguru, the Jeev comes with such Kismet. (1)

In the second stanza Guru Sahib explains how the Jeev under the influence of Maya, totally loses Dhyaan on Naam. The parents of the Jeev play with the child and love him as Jashodhra used to love Siri Krishna (Yashodra's love for Siri Krishna is legendary). Mother carries the baby around and says out loud that "this is my son". Guru Sahib comments, "O unconscious Mind, Remember Him, in the end, nothing belongs to you. That Vaheguru who created you, you don't remember him! get some wisdom in your mind." This way Guru Sahib concludes in the 2nd stanza saying that the Jeev has lost Dhyaan on Vaheguru.(2)

In the third stanza, Guru Sahib talks about the period from youth to about mid-life. In this stage, the Jeev is only concerned about his youth and money. The Jeev does not remember Naam that can save him from bonds. The Jeev does not remember Naam and becomes helpless by associating with Maya. The Jeev is intoxicated by youth and engaged in collecting wealth, and this way loses the value of human life by wasting it. The Jeev does not do the business of good Dharma and does not make Karma (good Karma) his friend and this way wastes his life collecting wealth and staying intoxicated in youth. (3)

In the fourth stanza, Guru Sahib skips the life between youth and old age, and goes straight to the last moments of the Jeev. Finally the moment of death arrives. The Jammdoots come to collect the Jeev in the same way as the farmer comes to harvest the crops. When the Jamm gets hold of the Jeev, no one realizes what happened to the Jeev. No one finds out where the Jeev gets taken by the Jamm. False crying by relatives occurs near the Jeev's dead body and in a second the Jeev becomes stranger to all. The Jeev gets that object in the next world, that he had wished for, all his life i.e. gets punished for his actions and sins. Guru Sahib says that in the 4th Pehar, the Jamm take away the Jeev as the farmer harvests his fields. (4)

ANALYSIS: In this Shabad we notice that Guru Sahib has explained the time in the womb and childhood in great detail and two stanzas are dedicated to this but the life from later childhood to mid-life gets covered only in one stanze. The old-age does not get explained at all. Then one whole stanza has been written to explain the time of death and aftermath. This Shabad basically explains the life of such person who is not a devotee of Vaheguru and leads a sinful life under the influence of Maya. In the end it has been shown that such person gets taken away by the Jammdoots (messengers of death).

As we do Vichaar on the remaining 3 Shabads, we will notice differences in how the life of the Jeev has been divided. That Vichaar to follow in the coming days. Finally we will study the differences in the 4 Pehars as explained in each of the 4 Shabads and try to understand it.

The second Shabad of Pehre too is written by Siri Guru Nanak Dev jee and the human life has been divided into 4 Pehars, differently than the first Shabad. The stages of human life that were not fully explained in the first Shabad have now been explained in this Shabad. Below is the Shabad and it's loose translation and after that we will do Vichaar of this Shabad.

SECOND SHABAD - PEHRE

ਸਿਰੀਰਾਗੁ ਮਹਲਾ ੧ ॥   ਪਹਿਲੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਬਾਲਕ ਬੁਧਿ ਅਚੇਤੁ ॥   ਖੀਰੁ ਪੀਐ ਖੇਲਾਈਐ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਮਾਤ ਪਿਤਾ ਸੁਤ ਹੇਤੁ ॥   ਮਾਤ ਪਿਤਾ ਸੁਤ ਨੇਹੁ ਘਨੇਰਾ ਮਾਇਆ ਮੋਹੁ ਸਬਾਈ ॥   ਸੰਜੋਗੀ ਆਇਆ ਕਿਰਤੁ ਕਮਾਇਆ ਕਰਣੀ ਕਾਰ ਕਰਾਈ ॥   ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮ ਬਿਨੁ ਮੁਕਤਿ ਨ ਹੋਈ ਬੂਡੀ ਦੂਜੈ ਹੇਤਿ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਪਹਿਲੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਛੂਟਹਿਗਾ ਹਰਿ ਚੇਤਿ ॥੧॥  

ਦੂਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਭਰਿ ਜੋਬਨਿ ਮੈ ਮਤਿ ॥   ਅਹਿਨਿਸਿ ਕਾਮਿ ਵਿਆਪਿਆ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਅੰਧੁਲੇ ਨਾਮੁ ਨ ਚਿਤਿ ॥   ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮੁ ਘਟ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਨਾਹੀ ਹੋਰਿ ਜਾਣੈ ਰਸ ਕਸ ਮੀਠੇ ॥   ਗਿਆਨੁ ਧਿਆਨੁ ਗੁਣ ਸੰਜਮੁ ਨਾਹੀ ਜਨਮਿ ਮਰਹੁਗੇ ਝੂਠੇ ॥   ਤੀਰਥ ਵਰਤ ਸੁਚਿ ਸੰਜਮੁ ਨਾਹੀ ਕਰਮੁ ਧਰਮੁ ਨਹੀ ਪੂਜਾ ॥   ਨਾਨਕ ਭਾਇ ਭਗਤਿ ਨਿਸਤਾਰਾ ਦੁਬਿਧਾ ਵਿਆਪੈ ਦੂਜਾ ॥੨॥  

ਤੀਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਸਰਿ ਹੰਸ ਉਲਥੜੇ ਆਇ ॥   ਜੋਬਨੁ ਘਟੈ ਜਰੂਆ ਜਿਣੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਆਵ ਘਟੈ ਦਿਨੁ ਜਾਇ ॥   ਅੰਤਿ ਕਾਲਿ ਪਛੁਤਾਸੀ ਅੰਧੁਲੇ ਜਾ ਜਮਿ ਪਕੜਿ ਚਲਾਇਆ ॥   ਸਭੁ ਕਿਛੁ ਅਪੁਨਾ ਕਰਿ ਕਰਿ ਰਾਖਿਆ ਖਿਨ ਮਹਿ ਭਇਆ ਪਰਾਇਆ ॥   ਬੁਧਿ ਵਿਸਰਜੀ ਗਈ ਸਿਆਣਪ ਕਰਿ ਅਵਗਣ ਪਛੁਤਾਇ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਤੀਜੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਚੇਤਹੁ ਲਿਵ ਲਾਇ ॥੩॥  

ਚਉਥੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਰੈਣਿ ਕੈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਬਿਰਧਿ ਭਇਆ ਤਨੁ ਖੀਣੁ ॥   ਅਖੀ ਅੰਧੁ ਨ ਦੀਸਈ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਕੰਨੀ ਸੁਣੈ ਨ ਵੈਣ ॥   ਅਖੀ ਅੰਧੁ ਜੀਭ ਰਸੁ ਨਾਹੀ ਰਹੇ ਪਰਾਕਉ ਤਾਣਾ ॥   ਗੁਣ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਨਾਹੀ ਕਿਉ ਸੁਖੁ ਪਾਵੈ ਮਨਮੁਖ ਆਵਣ ਜਾਣਾ ॥   ਖੜੁ ਪਕੀ ਕੁੜਿ ਭਜੈ ਬਿਨਸੈ ਆਇ ਚਲੈ ਕਿਆ ਮਾਣੁ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਚਉਥੈ ਪਹਰੈ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਸਬਦੁ ਪਛਾਣੁ ॥੪॥  

ਓੜਕੁ ਆਇਆ ਤਿਨ ਸਾਹਿਆ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਜਰੁ ਜਰਵਾਣਾ ਕੰਨਿ ॥   ਇਕ ਰਤੀ ਗੁਣ ਨ ਸਮਾਣਿਆ ਵਣਜਾਰਿਆ ਮਿਤ੍ਰਾ ਅਵਗਣ ਖੜਸਨਿ ਬੰਨਿ ॥   ਗੁਣ ਸੰਜਮਿ ਜਾਵੈ ਚੋਟ ਨ ਖਾਵੈ ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਜੰਮਣੁ ਮਰਣਾ ॥   ਕਾਲੁ ਜਾਲੁ ਜਮੁ ਜੋਹਿ ਨ ਸਾਕੈ ਭਾਇ ਭਗਤਿ ਭੈ ਤਰਣਾ ॥   ਪਤਿ ਸੇਤੀ ਜਾਵੈ ਸਹਜਿ ਸਮਾਵੈ ਸਗਲੇ ਦੂਖ ਮਿਟਾਵੈ ॥   ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਛੂਟੈ ਸਾਚੇ ਤੇ ਪਤਿ ਪਾਵੈ ॥੫॥੨॥  



LOOSE TRANSLATION

The first Pehar in this Shabad covers the childhood period. In the first Pehar, the Jeev has intelligence of a child and is unconscious in Maya. The parents love the child very much and feed him milk. The parents have extreme attachment with the child but no one realizes that the child and parents have met just because of Sanjog (force that brings Jeevs together to settle Karmic debts). Without Raam Naam, no one gets emancipated and everyone gets drowned in the ocean of Maya. Guru Sahib says that in the first Pehar too one can get Mukat (emancipated) if one remembers Hari Vaheguru. (1)

In the second Pehar the Jeev is intoxicated with youth; day and night he is indulged in Kaam (sexual lust). Raam Naam does not reside in the Jeev in this Pehar and he considers the worldly pleasures as sweet. The Jeev has no concentration, divine knowledge nor righteous Karma; therefore, he will take birth again and then die again (i.e. will get stuck in cycle of birth and death). The other means of getting free e.g. pilgrimages, fasting etc are of no use and one gets free by doing Prema-Bhagti but alas, the Jeev is stuck in Maya (Dooja). (2)

The third Pehar talks about mid-life. The Jeev starts losing youth and getting old; the life is coming to an end day by day. When the end time comes, the Jeev will have to regret because the Jeev has taken ownership of everything and will have to lose everything at death time. The wisdom of Jeev is covered by Maya and for sinning the Jeev will regret later on. Guru Sahib says that the Jeev should remember Vaheguru with full concentration in this Pehar. (3)

The 4th Pehar covers the old age when the Jeev becomes very weak. The body starts faltering, the eyes lose eyesight, the tongue can no longer feel taste and ears lose ability to hear. In such situation the Jeev remains totally dependent on others. How can the Jeev get Sukh (happiness) when he has no good qualities in the Jeev? The Manmukh Jeev has to come and go (take birth and die). Only through the Guru, can the Jeev realize the Shabad in this Pehar. (4)

The 4th Pehar continues in the 5th stanza. Finally that moment arrives when the messengers of death come and since the Manmukh Jeev hardly has any good deed, they tie up the Jeev to carry him across to the next world. On the other hand, Gurmukhs who go to the next world loaded with Gunn (good Gurmat qualities, good Karma), they don't have to take birth again, nor they die again. Those who stay in the fear of Vaheguru and love Him, Jammdoots can't touch them. They go with full honour and respect and all their Dukh (sorrow) is deleted. Guru Sahib says that the Jeev can get emancipated only through the true Guru and only from the True one (Vaheguru) the Jeev gets honour.(5)

ANALYSIS This Shabad basically starts with childhood and moves on to explain youth in the second stanze. In the third stanza it explains mid-life and in the fourth and fifth stanzas Guru Sahib covers the fourth Pehar of one's life which involves old age and death. The first Shabad had gone straight from youth to death time but this Shabad explains the midlife, old age and death time in greater detail however, it does not explain the time spent in womb because that time has been covered in the first Shabad.

The old age explained in this Shabad is very scary. If the Jeev does not have the support of Naam and Gurbani, it is very hard to endure suffering in old age. First of all Gurmukhs don't go through the severe old age mentioned in this Shabad but even if they have to go through it to settle their Karmic account once and for all, they have the support of Naam to endure this hardship.

Guru Sahib gives the Manmukh Jeev a chance even in this old age and says that even if the Jeev comes to the Guru and realizes the Shabad, still he can get free but such a thing occurs rarely. The Jeev who has been indulged in Maya all life, can hardly even think of coming to the true Guru.

Below is the summary of 4 Shabads of Pehre and how the life has been divided into Pehars, by each of the Shabad. The basic idea of all Shabads is same - the futility of human life without Simran and the success of human life by meditating the true Naam.




The study of Pehre is very exciting. May Guru Sahib make us true Vanjaare Mitr of Guru Sahib.

Bhul Chuk dee Maafi jee.

Kulbir Singh
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