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What is the difference between Dohra, Sortha, Chaupai, Savaiya and Kabit
								

These are different poetic forms that have been used in Gurbani:

1. Dohara

I think this one is same as a Salok. It has a total of 24 Maatra. It always ends with a Laghu Maatra.

ਦੀਨ ਦਰਦ ਦੁਖ ਭੰਜਨਾ, ਘਟਿ ਘਟਿ ਨਾਥ ਅਨਾਥ ॥
ਸਰਣਿ ਤੁਮ੍ਹ੍ਹਾਰੀ ਆਇਓ, ਨਾਨਕ ਕੇ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਸਾਥ ॥੧॥


The above Salok has first Bishraam at 13 Maatra and second one at 11 Maatra. Both Pankitis end with a Laghu Maatra. There are many kinds of Dohra or Salok where the Bishraams are at different Maatras and different amounts of Laghu-Maatra and Guru-Maatra appear within the Dohra.


2. Soratha

This Chhand has 24 Maatra but it can have plus or minus one Maatra (25 or 23) and as opposed to Dohra, it always ends with a Guru-Maatra.

ਗੁਰੁ ਅਰਜੁਨੁ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣੁ ਪਾਰਥਉ ਚਾਲੈ ਨਹੀ ॥
ਨੇਜਾ ਨਾਮ ਨੀਸਾਣੁ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਸਬਦਿ ਸਵਾਰਿਅਉ ॥੧॥

ਭਵਜਲੁ ਸਾਇਰੁ ਸੇਤੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਹਰੀ ਕਾ ਬੋਹਿਥਾ ॥
ਤੁਅ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਸੰ ਹੇਤੁ ਨਾਮਿ ਲਾਗਿ ਜਗੁ ਉਧਰ੍ਯ੍ਯਉ ॥੨॥

ਜਗਤ ਉਧਾਰਣੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਤੁਠੈ ਪਾਇਅਉ ॥
ਅਬ ਨਾਹਿ ਅਵਰ ਸਰਿ ਕਾਮੁ ਬਾਰੰਤਰਿ ਪੂਰੀ ਪੜੀ ॥੩॥੧੨॥



3. Chaupai'

Chaupai has four lined-Stanzas and each line is of 16 Maatra. All Pankitis of Benti Chaupai Sahib or of this poetic form.

4. Kabit

There are not hard rules for Kabit and it literally means a poem (Kavita) but as per experts like Nabha jee, there are some rules that poets have created to make it beautiful. Another difference is that in a Kabit, the count is not done as per Maatra (as is the case with Dohra, Salok etc.) but as per alphabets. No regard is given to Maatra.


5. Savaiya

There are two kinds of Savaiya - one that are metred with Maatra and the others that are metred with alphabets. The ones below are measured with alphabets - 24 alphabets (plus minus 1):

ਸ੍ਰਾਵਗ ਸੁੱਧ ਸਮੂਹ ਸਿਧਾਨ ਕੇ ਦੇਖਿ ਫਿਰਿਓ ਘਰ ਜੋਗ ਜਤੀ ਕੇ ॥
ਸੂਰ ਸੁਰਾਰਦਨ ਸੁੱਧ ਸੁਧਾਦਿਕ ਸੰਤ ਸਮੂਹ ਅਨੇਕ ਮਤੀ ਕੇ ॥
ਸਾਰੇ ਹੀ ਦੇਸ ਕੋ ਦੇਖਿ ਰਹਿਓ ਮਤ ਕੋਊ ਨ ਦੇਖੀਅਤ ਪ੍ਰਾਨਪਤੀ ਕੇ ॥
ਸ੍ਰੀ ਭਗਵਾਨ ਕੀ ਭਾਇ ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾ ਹੂ ਤੇ ਏਕ ਰਤੀ ਬਿਨੁ ਏਕ ਰਤੀ ਕੇ ॥1॥


When measured with Maatra, they are mostly 31 (plus minus 1).

Today the art of Pingal (poetry done in Bandish of Maatra) is almost lost. Urdu Shayers are still maintaining the Ghazal tradition but the rich India Pingal is being lost due to popularity of cheap Filmy poetry.

Kulbir Singh

 
 
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These are different poetic forms that have been used in Gurbani:

1. Dohara

I think this one is same as a Salok. It has a total of 24 Maatra. It always ends with a Laghu Maatra.

ਦੀਨ ਦਰਦ ਦੁਖ ਭੰਜਨਾ, ਘਟਿ ਘਟਿ ਨਾਥ ਅਨਾਥ ॥
ਸਰਣਿ ਤੁਮ੍ਹ੍ਹਾਰੀ ਆਇਓ, ਨਾਨਕ ਕੇ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਸਾਥ ॥੧॥


The above Salok has first Bishraam at 13 Maatra and second one at 11 Maatra. Both Pankitis end with a Laghu Maatra. There are many kinds of Dohra or Salok where the Bishraams are at different Maatras and different amounts of Laghu-Maatra and Guru-Maatra appear within the Dohra.


2. Soratha

This Chhand has 24 Maatra but it can have plus or minus one Maatra (25 or 23) and as opposed to Dohra, it always ends with a Guru-Maatra.

ਗੁਰੁ ਅਰਜੁਨੁ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣੁ ਪਾਰਥਉ ਚਾਲੈ ਨਹੀ ॥
ਨੇਜਾ ਨਾਮ ਨੀਸਾਣੁ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਸਬਦਿ ਸਵਾਰਿਅਉ ॥੧॥

ਭਵਜਲੁ ਸਾਇਰੁ ਸੇਤੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਹਰੀ ਕਾ ਬੋਹਿਥਾ ॥
ਤੁਅ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਸੰ ਹੇਤੁ ਨਾਮਿ ਲਾਗਿ ਜਗੁ ਉਧਰ੍ਯ੍ਯਉ ॥੨॥

ਜਗਤ ਉਧਾਰਣੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਤੁਠੈ ਪਾਇਅਉ ॥
ਅਬ ਨਾਹਿ ਅਵਰ ਸਰਿ ਕਾਮੁ ਬਾਰੰਤਰਿ ਪੂਰੀ ਪੜੀ ॥੩॥੧੨॥



3. Chaupai'

Chaupai has four lined-Stanzas and each line is of 16 Maatra. All Pankitis of Benti Chaupai Sahib or of this poetic form.

4. Kabit

There are not hard rules for Kabit and it literally means a poem (Kavita) but as per experts like Nabha jee, there are some rules that poets have created to make it beautiful. Another difference is that in a Kabit, the count is not done as per Maatra (as is the case with Dohra, Salok etc.) but as per alphabets. No regard is given to Maatra.


5. Savaiya

There are two kinds of Savaiya - one that are metred with Maatra and the others that are metred with alphabets. The ones below are measured with alphabets - 24 alphabets (plus minus 1):

ਸ੍ਰਾਵਗ ਸੁੱਧ ਸਮੂਹ ਸਿਧਾਨ ਕੇ ਦੇਖਿ ਫਿਰਿਓ ਘਰ ਜੋਗ ਜਤੀ ਕੇ ॥
ਸੂਰ ਸੁਰਾਰਦਨ ਸੁੱਧ ਸੁਧਾਦਿਕ ਸੰਤ ਸਮੂਹ ਅਨੇਕ ਮਤੀ ਕੇ ॥
ਸਾਰੇ ਹੀ ਦੇਸ ਕੋ ਦੇਖਿ ਰਹਿਓ ਮਤ ਕੋਊ ਨ ਦੇਖੀਅਤ ਪ੍ਰਾਨਪਤੀ ਕੇ ॥
ਸ੍ਰੀ ਭਗਵਾਨ ਕੀ ਭਾਇ ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾ ਹੂ ਤੇ ਏਕ ਰਤੀ ਬਿਨੁ ਏਕ ਰਤੀ ਕੇ ॥1॥


When measured with Maatra, they are mostly 31 (plus minus 1).

Today the art of Pingal (poetry done in Bandish of Maatra) is almost lost. Urdu Shayers are still maintaining the Ghazal tradition but the rich India Pingal is being lost due to popularity of cheap Filmy poetry.

Kulbir Singh

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