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Pronunciation rules for Kanna-ending plural nouns
								

Explained below are the nasal pronouncing rules of nouns ending with kanna. Please note that this topic is only for those nouns that are normally not kanna-ending but end up with a kanna for poetic, rhyming or meter reasons. Please note the following with respect to this:

1) At many instances the nouns end with kanna for poetic, rhyming or poetic-meter reasons. Such words should be pronounced without nasal sound. As an example the word "ਕੋਸ" denotes a measure of distance like mile or km. This word is sometimes used with a kanna in the end as is the case in the fifth shabad of Sodar Rehraas Sahib – ਊਡੇ ਊਡਿ ਆਵੈ ਸੈ ਕੋਸਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਪਾਛੈ ਬਚਰੇ ਛਰਿਆ ॥ Over here the word ਕੋਸਾ should not be pronounced as nasal sound. Even though this noun is plural noun, still the it’s not a nasal sound because there is no preposition after this word. Please see next rule for more explanation.

2) In case, a plural noun that normally ends without a kanna but for poetic or rhyming reasons, ends with a kanna and there is a preposition like da, ka, di, ki, noo, etc. after this word, then this word should be pronounced as nasal. An example is

ਲੋਕਾ ਦਾ ਕਿਆ ਜਾਇ ਜਾ ਤੁਧੁ ਭਾਣਿਆ॥1॥

Here the word "ਲੋਕਾ" should be pronounced with nasal sound in the end because of presence of ‘da’ after it.

Now please ponder upon the following pankiti:

ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਧਾਨੁ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਸੁਣਾਇਆ ਮਿਟਿ ਗਏ ਸਗਲੇ ਰੋਗਾ ਜੀਉ ॥2॥

In this pankiti, the word "ਰੋਗਾ "is a plural noun, yet it should not be pronounced as nasal because there is no preposition like da, ka, ki di etc. after it.

3) Continuing from the previous point, even if the preposition is gupt i.e. does not appear in writing, still it causes the nasal sound. Have a look at the following pankiti:

ਸੰਤਾ ਸੰਗਤਿ ਨਰਕਿ ਨ ਪਾਈ ॥

In this pankiti, the word ਸੰਤਾ should be pronounced nasal sound because the preposition or sambandhak ‘ki’ or ‘di’ is hidden after ਸੰਤਾ and the meaning is ਸੰਤਾ ਦੀ ਸੰਗਤਿ or ਸੰਤਾ ਕੀ ਸੰਗਤਿ. Since there is a hidden ‘di’ or ‘ki’ after "ਸੰਤਾ" therefore it should be pronounced as nasal sound.

4) Continuing from the previous point, the word ‘santa’ in the following pankiti is not nasal, even though it is a plural noun:

ਹਰਖ ਸੋਗ ਲੋਭ ਮੋਹ ਰਹਤ ਹਹਿ ਨਿਰਮਲ ਹਰਿ ਕੇ ਸੰਤਾ ॥

The reason is same i.e. there is no sambandhak after ਸੰਤਾ .


Here are some examples that will make this concept more clear:


ਗਿਆਨੁ ਧਿਆਨੁ ਸਭ ਦਾਤਿ ਕਥੀਅਲੇ ਸੇਤ ਬਰਨ ਸਭਿ ਦੂਤਾ ॥

Here the word ‘doota’ should be nasal because there is a presence of preposition ‘de’ or ‘ke’. The meaning is that ‘

ਸਭ ਦੂਤਾਂ ਦੇ ਬਰਨ (ਰੰਗ) ਸੇਤ (ਸਫੇਦ) ਹੋ ਗਏ


ਆਨਦ ਮੂਲੁ ਨਾਥੁ ਸਿਰਿ ਨਾਥਾ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੁ ਮੇਲਿ ਮਿਲਾਈ ॥5॥

Here the word "ਨਾਥਾ" should be pronounced nasal because there is a presence of preposition ‘de’ or ‘ke’. The meaning is that ‘

ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਆਨੰਦਾਂ ਭਾਵ ਸੁਖਾਂ ਦਾ ਮੂਲ ਹੈ ਤੇ ਨਾਥਾਂ ਦੇ ਸਿਰ ਤੇ ਨਾਥ ਹੈ।


ਜਿਹ ਮਾਰਗ ਕੇ ਗਨੇ ਜਾਹਿ ਨ ਕੋਸਾ ॥
Even though the word Kosa is a plural noun here still it should not be pronounced nasal because there is no preposition ‘de’ or ‘ke’. The meaning is that:

ਜਿਸ ਰਸਤੇ ਦੇ ਕੋਸ ਗਿਣੇ ਨਹੀਂ ਜਾ ਸਕਦੇ
'
Please note that this rule applies to only those nouns that normally end without kanna but have a kanna because of poetic, rhyming or meter reasons.

Gurbani is Agam Agaadh Bodh and it is impossible to fully fathom Gurbani. May Guru Sahib forgive our mistakes while interpreting Gurbani.

Daas,
Kulbir Singh

 
 
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Explained below are the nasal pronouncing rules of nouns ending with kanna. Please note that this topic is only for those nouns that are normally not kanna-ending but end up with a kanna for poetic, rhyming or meter reasons. Please note the following with respect to this:

1) At many instances the nouns end with kanna for poetic, rhyming or poetic-meter reasons. Such words should be pronounced without nasal sound. As an example the word "ਕੋਸ" denotes a measure of distance like mile or km. This word is sometimes used with a kanna in the end as is the case in the fifth shabad of Sodar Rehraas Sahib – ਊਡੇ ਊਡਿ ਆਵੈ ਸੈ ਕੋਸਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਪਾਛੈ ਬਚਰੇ ਛਰਿਆ ॥ Over here the word ਕੋਸਾ should not be pronounced as nasal sound. Even though this noun is plural noun, still the it’s not a nasal sound because there is no preposition after this word. Please see next rule for more explanation.

2) In case, a plural noun that normally ends without a kanna but for poetic or rhyming reasons, ends with a kanna and there is a preposition like da, ka, di, ki, noo, etc. after this word, then this word should be pronounced as nasal. An example is

ਲੋਕਾ ਦਾ ਕਿਆ ਜਾਇ ਜਾ ਤੁਧੁ ਭਾਣਿਆ॥1॥

Here the word "ਲੋਕਾ" should be pronounced with nasal sound in the end because of presence of ‘da’ after it.

Now please ponder upon the following pankiti:

ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਧਾਨੁ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਸੁਣਾਇਆ ਮਿਟਿ ਗਏ ਸਗਲੇ ਰੋਗਾ ਜੀਉ ॥2॥

In this pankiti, the word "ਰੋਗਾ "is a plural noun, yet it should not be pronounced as nasal because there is no preposition like da, ka, ki di etc. after it.

3) Continuing from the previous point, even if the preposition is gupt i.e. does not appear in writing, still it causes the nasal sound. Have a look at the following pankiti:

ਸੰਤਾ ਸੰਗਤਿ ਨਰਕਿ ਨ ਪਾਈ ॥

In this pankiti, the word ਸੰਤਾ should be pronounced nasal sound because the preposition or sambandhak ‘ki’ or ‘di’ is hidden after ਸੰਤਾ and the meaning is ਸੰਤਾ ਦੀ ਸੰਗਤਿ or ਸੰਤਾ ਕੀ ਸੰਗਤਿ. Since there is a hidden ‘di’ or ‘ki’ after "ਸੰਤਾ" therefore it should be pronounced as nasal sound.

4) Continuing from the previous point, the word ‘santa’ in the following pankiti is not nasal, even though it is a plural noun:

ਹਰਖ ਸੋਗ ਲੋਭ ਮੋਹ ਰਹਤ ਹਹਿ ਨਿਰਮਲ ਹਰਿ ਕੇ ਸੰਤਾ ॥

The reason is same i.e. there is no sambandhak after ਸੰਤਾ .


Here are some examples that will make this concept more clear:


ਗਿਆਨੁ ਧਿਆਨੁ ਸਭ ਦਾਤਿ ਕਥੀਅਲੇ ਸੇਤ ਬਰਨ ਸਭਿ ਦੂਤਾ ॥

Here the word ‘doota’ should be nasal because there is a presence of preposition ‘de’ or ‘ke’. The meaning is that ‘

ਸਭ ਦੂਤਾਂ ਦੇ ਬਰਨ (ਰੰਗ) ਸੇਤ (ਸਫੇਦ) ਹੋ ਗਏ


ਆਨਦ ਮੂਲੁ ਨਾਥੁ ਸਿਰਿ ਨਾਥਾ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੁ ਮੇਲਿ ਮਿਲਾਈ ॥5॥

Here the word "ਨਾਥਾ" should be pronounced nasal because there is a presence of preposition ‘de’ or ‘ke’. The meaning is that ‘

ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਆਨੰਦਾਂ ਭਾਵ ਸੁਖਾਂ ਦਾ ਮੂਲ ਹੈ ਤੇ ਨਾਥਾਂ ਦੇ ਸਿਰ ਤੇ ਨਾਥ ਹੈ।


ਜਿਹ ਮਾਰਗ ਕੇ ਗਨੇ ਜਾਹਿ ਨ ਕੋਸਾ ॥
Even though the word Kosa is a plural noun here still it should not be pronounced nasal because there is no preposition ‘de’ or ‘ke’. The meaning is that:

ਜਿਸ ਰਸਤੇ ਦੇ ਕੋਸ ਗਿਣੇ ਨਹੀਂ ਜਾ ਸਕਦੇ
'
Please note that this rule applies to only those nouns that normally end without kanna but have a kanna because of poetic, rhyming or meter reasons.

Gurbani is Agam Agaadh Bodh and it is impossible to fully fathom Gurbani. May Guru Sahib forgive our mistakes while interpreting Gurbani.

Daas,
Kulbir Singh

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